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Directory of Places of Detention

Overview Directories of Places of Detention

The directory overview of places of detention provides information on different National Socialist places and sites of detention in the then German Reich as well as in the territories occupied by Germany during the Second World War. The listed directories make no claims of being complete, because they usually reflect the current scientific state of knowledge of the individual year of origin.

The Online Directory of Places of Detention of the Foundation "Remembrance, Responsibility and Future

The directory of places of detention of the foundation "Remembrance, Responsibility and Future" is the result of intensive archival and literature investigations (Homepage Directory of Places of Detention) Numerous reports had to be created to obtain a greater knowledge. However, many of these camps were known to historical research, but there was only little known about the living conditions in them. Consequently, many existing knowledge gaps have been filled or else information has been gathered that will be of significance for further investigations on these camps even beyond this process of recognition. The foundation went down new roads to support their applicants: Since according to the Foundation Law only NS victims who had performed forced labour in a concentration camp would receive the highest benefit category A, the Foundation Law extended the circle of potential humans eligible to submit an application and created the new field of "other places of detention" similar to concentration camps which was initially due to a legal background at first. According to the Foundation Law concentration camps previously only included those concentration camps that had been formally defined as concentration camps in the "Bundesentschädigungsgesetz" and that had been listed in the according directory (Bundesentschädigungsgesetz). The source for the "Bundesentschädigungsgesetz" was again the directory of National Socialist places of detention, which had been set up by the International Tracing Service at the end of the war to make things easier for them (see general directories of places of detention).

This directory and the lists of the "Bundesentschädigungsgesetz" did however not include many of those camps, the inmates of which were now to be considered in view of the Foundation Law namely numerous labour camps and many detention centres of the Gestapo in the occupied territories and in the German Reich itself. The condition for a recognition according to the law was that forced labour had to be carried out at the place of detention. The Foundation Law laid down three criterions for the identification of such places of detention: inhuman prison conditions, poor nutrition and lacking medical care. Based on this and upon request of the partner organistions more than 3,800 camps have been recognised as places of detention over the years which were to be considered along the lines of the Foundation Law. Please see Homepage Directory of Places of Detention(Search the Directory of Places of Detention).

General Directories of Places of Detention

Benz, Wolfgang / Distel, Barbara (Hg.): Der Ort des Terrors. Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager, Band 1 bis 9, Munich 2005 until 2009.

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos 1933-1945, Volume I, Part A, Bloomington 2009.

Weinmann, Martin (Hg.): Das nationalsozialistische Lagersystem (Catalogue of Camps and Prisons in Germany and German-Occupied Territories 1939–1945 (CCP)), Frankfurt am Main 1990.

Internationaler Suchdienst (ISD) (Hg.): Verzeichnis der Haftstätten unter dem Reichsführer-SS (1933-1945), Konzentrationslager und deren Außenkommandos sowie andere Haftstätten unter dem Reichsführer-SS in Deutschland und deutsch besetzten Gebieten, Bad Arolsen 1979.

Schwarz, Gudrun: Die nationalsozialistischen Lager, Frankfurt am Main 1996.

Drobisch, Klaus u. Wieland, Günther: System der NS-Konzentrationslager: 1933-1939, Berlin 1993.

Country-Specific Directories of Places of Detention

Algeria

Levisse-Touze, Christine: Les camps d'internement en Afrique du Nord pendant la seconde guerre mondiale, in: Ageron, Charles-Robert: Mélanges, Fondation Temimi Pour la Recherche Scientifique et l'Information – Zaghouan (FTERSI). Revue d'Histoire Maghrebin, Nov. 1997.

Oliel, Jacob: Les camps de Vichy, Maghreb-Sahara, 1939 – 1945, Editions du Lys, Montréal 2005.

Belarus

Adamushko, V.I. u.a.: Handbuch der Haftstätten für Zivilbevölkerung auf dem besetzten Territorium Weißrusslands 1941-1944, hg. vom Staatskomitee für Archive und Aktenführung der Republik Belarus, Minsk 2001.

Belgium

Benz, Wolfgang / Distel, Barbara (Hg.): Terror im Westen. Nationalsozialistische Lager in den Niederlanden, Belgien und Luxemburg 1940-1945, Berlin 2002

France

Meyer, Ahlrich: Internierungslager in Südfrankreich während der Zeit der deutschen Besatzung 1940-1944, Gutachten für die Stiftung "Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft", Berlin 2001.

Peschanski, Denis: La France des Camps. L'internement, 1938-1946, Paris 2002.

Netherlands

Benz, Wolfgang / Distel, Barbara (Hg.): Terror im Westen. Nationalsozialistische Lager in den Niederlanden, Belgien und Luxemburg 1940-1945, Berlin 2002.

Luxembourg

Benz, Wolfgang / Distel, Barbara (Hg.): Terror im Westen. Nationalsozialistische Lager in den Niederlanden, Belgien und Luxemburg 1940-1945, Berlin 2002.

Norway

Ottosen, Kristian: Arbeits- und Konzentrationslager in Norwegen 1940 – 1945, in: Bohn, Robert et al.: Neutralität und totalitäre Aggression, Nordeuropa und die Großmächte im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Stuttgart 1991.

Poland

Obozy hitlerowskie na ziemiach polskich 1939-1945. Informator encyklopedyczny. Warszawa 1979 (NS-Lager auf dem Territorium Polens 1939-1945. Enzyklopädisches Nachschlagewerk, Warsaw 1979).

Chech Republic

Nedbalek, Frantisek: Mistra utpreni a vzdoru. Prague 1984.

Ukraine

Dubyk, Maryna H.: Handbuch der Lager, Gefängnisse und Ghettos auf dem besetzten Territorium der Ukraine, hg. vom Staatlichen Archivkomitee der Ukraine, Kiew 2000.

Russia

Sprawotschnik o mestach chranenija dokumentow o nemezko-faschystskich lagerjach, getto, drugich mestach prinuditelnogo sodershanija i nasilstwennom wywose grashdan na raboty w Germaniju i drugije strany Jewropy w period Welikoj Otetschestwennoj wojny 1941- 1945 gg. – Moscow, 1994. – 176 P.; Dopolnenija k sprawotschniku ... Moscow, 1998. – 64 P. (Manual on the places of keeping of documents on Camps, Ghettos and other places of detention for citizens carried off to Germany and other European countries during World War II in 1941-1945 for the purpose of forced labour, Moscow 1994 (176 P.) and 1998 (64 P.).